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192                                        FLORA   INDTCA.
that which we have indicated as prevalent in similar localities
in Nipal. The terest is most luxuriant where the higher
mountains overhang the plains, and becomes stunted or dis-
appears entirely where a great river debouches on the plain.
In Garhwal, west of the Ganges, the forest which skirts the
Siwalik hills is less extensive, but many parts of the Dehra
Dhiin are densely wooded. A species of Calamus which grows
in its jungles marks the western limit of that genus along
the Himalaya. West of the Jumna the vegetation changes
rather suddenly. A similar change has already been indi-
cated at the same place in the plain's vegetation (page 161),
but the forest belt close to the mountains, being always more
humid than the plain at a distance from them, their vegeta-
tion is never the same. The gigantic Bombax, and the lofty
trees of Nauclea, Lagerstr&mia, Conocarpus, T&*minaUa9 Ster-
culia, and others, and the scandent species of Butea, Bauhinia,
Millettia, Ventilago, etc., have however disappeared, and spi-
nous bushes or stunted trees of Zizyphus Jujuba, Butea fron-
dosa, Cassia Ffetula, Acacia AraMca and Catechu, form the
greater part of the jungle, mixed with' Diospyros -wrdifoRa,
Adhatoda Vasica, and Isora corylifolia. In the extreme west,
Acacia modesta becomes very abundant, and beyond the Je-
lam the flora is identical with that of the lower Afghan hills.
The tropical vegetation advances.far within the mountains,
ascending the valleys of the. great rivers, and corresponding
in character with the forest belt without, but often rather
drier. In eastern Kumaon the humid valley of the Sarju is
filled with dense forest. The curious palm Wallichia oblongi-
-folia has there its western limit, and, a pepper, a Pothos, an
arboresamt Aralia, and a few other plants indicative of hu-
midity/still linger in.its recesses. The valley of the Gauges
is much drier and contains little forest, and the tropical por-
tions of the Jumna and the Satlcj are quite bare. In the
Satlej valley, Afghan forms, unknown further cast, begin to
make their appearance,—PaKurus and Otea cmyidata being
the most conspicuous. To these arc added, in the Chcnab